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Contribution of Environmental Surveillance toward Interruption of Poliovirus Transmission in Nigeria, 2012–2015

Sunday, 6th of March 2016 Print


Contribution of Environmental Surveillance toward Interruption of Poliovirus Transmission in Nigeria, 2012–2015

  1. 1.        Ticha Johnson Muluh1
  2. 2.        Abdullahi Walla Hamisu1
  3. 3.        Kehinde Craig1
  4. 4.        Pascal Mkanda2,
  5. 5.        Etsano Andrew3
  6. 6.        Johnson Adeniji4
  7. 7.        Adefunke Akande1
  8. 8.        Audu Musa1
  9. 9.        Isiaka Ayodeji1,
  10. 10.     Gumede Nicksy2
  11. 11.     Richard Banda1
  12. 12.     Sisay G. Tegegne1
  13. 13.     Peter Nsubuga5
  14. 14.     Ajiboye Oyetunji1,
  15. 15.     Ousmane Diop6
  16. 16.     Rui G. Vaz1 and 
  17. 17.     Ado J. G. Muhammad3

+Author Affiliations

1.        1World Health Organization, Country Representative Office, Abuja, Nigeria
2.        2World Health Organization, Regional Office for Africa, Brazzaville, Congo
3.        3National Primary Health Care Development Agency, Abuja
4.        4University of Ibadan, Nigeria
5.        5Global Public Health Solutions, Atlanta, Georgia
6.        6World Health organization, Head Quarters, Geneva, Switzerland
  1. Correspondence: T. J. Muluh, World Health Organization, Country Representative Office, Abuja, Nigeria (tichaj@who.int).

Abstract below; full text is at http://jid.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2016/02/21/infdis.jiv767.full?sid=5bde244d-23b9-48c1-bb79-95f324f6fe2e

Background. Cases of paralysis caused by poliovirus have decreased by >99% since the 1988 World Health Assembly´s resolution to eradicate polio. The World Health Organization identified environmental surveillance (ES) of poliovirus in the poliomyelitis eradication strategic plan as an activity that can complement acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance. This article summarizes key public health interventions that followed the isolation of polioviruses from ES between 2012 and 2015.

Methods. The grap method was used to collect 1.75 L of raw flowing sewage every 2–4 weeks. Once collected, samples were shipped at 4°C to a polio laboratory for concentration. ES data were then used to guide program implementation.

Results. From 2012 to 2015, ES reported 97 circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV2) and 14 wild polioviruses. In 2014 alone, 54 cVDPV type 2 cases and 1 WPV type 1 case were reported. In Sokoto State, 58 cases of AFP were found from a search of 9426 households. A total of 2 252 059 inactivated polio vaccine and 2 460 124 oral polio vaccine doses were administered to children aged <5 year in Borno and Yobe states.

Conclusions. This article is among the first from Africa that relates ES findings to key public health interventions (mass immunization campaigns, inactivated polio vaccine introduction, and strengthening of AFP surveillance) that have contributed to the interruption of poliovirus transmission in Nigeria.


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